Initial synchronization assisted by inherent diversity over time-varying frequency-selective fading channels

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6 Scopus citations


An initial synchronization technique based on novel estimations of the time error and carrier frequency offset (CFO) is investigated in this paper to operate in frequency-selective fading environments. Based on motivation from statistical derivations, a novel estimator is proposed by embedding matched filters (MFs) into the RAKE fingers to approach the modified Cramer-Rao lower bounds (MCRLBs). Meanwhile, a dual chirp signal is proven to have the ability to decorrelate the performances between the time-error and the CFO estimators. By taking advantage of pseudo-noise (PN) MFs, the individual channel tap-weighting coefficients can be extracted from the interpath interference on a path-by-path basis. The proposed technique is then built to approach the MCRLBs by taking advantage of the maximum ratio combining (MRC) criterion. In practice, the proposed technique can significantly outperform a conventional initial synchronization technique that is not assisted by the diversity in terms of higher probabilities of burst acquisition and lower mean-square errors (MSEs) on the time-error and CFO estimations over multipath fading channels. Comprehensive computer simulations were conducted to verify the improvements achieved using the technique that is statistically derived in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6775034
Pages (from-to)2518-2529
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014


  • Sector search
  • chirp signals
  • diversity
  • initial synchronization
  • matched filter (MF)
  • maximum ratio combining (MRC)
  • pseudo-noise (PN)
  • random access
  • ranging


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