Influence of acid precursors on physicochemical properties of nanosized titania synthesized by thermal-hydrolysis method

B. Rajesh, N. R. Sasirekha, Y. W. Chen

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17 Scopus citations


The influence of nature and concentration of acid species on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of titania particles synthesized by direct thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was investigated. The acids used were hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid with a concentration of 3 M. Thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid with molar ratios of [H+]/[Ti4+] = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively, was used to study the effect of acid concentration. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples by X-ray diffraction studies revealed the influence of acid species on the phase transformation of titania. Samples prepared by hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and perchloric acid formed rutile phase with rhombus primary particles, while sulfuric acid resulted in anatase phase with flake-shaped primary particles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results confirmed the nanosized titania particles and the agglomeration of primary particles to form secondary particles in spherical shape. The particle size of titania prepared using perchloric acid was smaller than those prepared with other acid sources. A direct correlation between [H+]/[Ti4+] ratio and particle size of titania was observed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-692
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials Research Bulletin
Issue number3
StatePublished - 4 Mar 2008


  • A. Oxides
  • B. Chemical synthesis
  • C. Electron microscopy
  • D. Surface properties


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