The devastating Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai underwater volcano erupted at ~04:15 UT on 15 January 2022. We captured the waves that erupted from the volcano propagating in the ionosphere by monitoring total electron content (TEC) perturbations utilizing ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers that receive electromagnetic signals transmitted from the geostationary satellites operated by the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). Meanwhile, ground barometers detected unusual enhancements of air pressure traveling in the troposphere. A novel phenomenon shows that the waves can individually propagate with a speed of ~335 m/s in the ionosphere, which is faster than its’ ~305 m/s in the troposphere. We further examined multiple geophysical data at the particular site of the novel instrumental array. Analytical results show that the pressure enhancements traveling in the troposphere not only downward trigger ground vibrations mainly in the horizontal components without obvious time difference, but also upward, leading the secondary TEC perturbations with a ~12-min delay.
- BeiDou geostationary satellite
- blast wave
- Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai underwater volcano
- MVP-LAI system