Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) detection remains an unsolved problem in using of automated instruments for urinalysis. The study proposes a machine learning (ML)-based strategy to increase the detection rate of T. vaginalis in urine. On the basis of urinalysis data from a teaching hospital during 2009–2013, individuals underwent at least one urinalysis test were included. Logistic regression, support vector machine, and random forest, were used to select specimens with a high risk of T. vaginalis infection for confirmation through microscopic examinations. A total of 410,952 and 428,203 specimens from men and women were tested, of which 91 (0.02%) and 517 (0.12%) T. vaginalis-positive specimens were reported, respectively. The prediction models of T. vaginalis infection attained an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of more than 0.87 for women and 0.83 for men. The Lift values of the top 5% risky specimens were above eight. While the most risky vigintile was picked out by the models and confirmed by microscopic examination, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for T. vaginalis detection in men and women were USD$170.1 and USD$29.7, respectively. On the basis of urinalysis, the proposed strategy can significantly increase the detection rate of T. vaginalis in a cost-effective manner.