In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy

Shi Wei Chu, Szu Yu Chen, Tsung Han Tsai, Tzu Ming Liu, Cheng Yung Lin, Huai Jen Tsai, Chi Kuang Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

157 Scopus citations


Morphological changes and complex developmental processes inside vertebrate embryos are difficult to observe noninvasively with millimeter-penetration and sub-micrometer-resolution at the same time. By using higher harmonic generation, including second and third harmonics, as the microscopic contrast mechanism, optical noninvasiveness can be achieved due to the virtual-level-transition characteristic. The intrinsic nonlinearity of harmonic generations provides optical sectioning capability while the selected 1230-nm near-infrared light source provides the deep-penetration ability. The complicated development within a ∼1.5-mm thick zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo from initial cell proliferation, gastrulation, to tissue formation can all be observed clearly in vivo without any treatment on the live specimen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3093-3099
Number of pages7
JournalOptics Express
Issue number23
StatePublished - Nov 2003


Dive into the research topics of 'In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this