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This study investigates the impact of assimilating ground-based radar reflectivity and wind data on tropical cyclone (TC) intensity prediction. The effect on a high-impact TC in the western North Pacific region that penetrated the Bashi Channel is examined. A multiscale correction based on the successive covariance localization (SCL) method is adopted to improve the analysis and forecast performance. In addition, GNSS-R wind speed is assimilated jointly in the rapid update assimilation framework to complement the TC boundary layer where radar data are limited. Model experiments are conducted and evaluated using the observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) framework with a coupled atmosphere–ocean model nature run. Taking the experiment without data assimilation as the baseline, assimilating the radar data with the standard localization and SCL methods reduces the wind speed analysis error by 12% and 44%, respec-tively. The SCL method dominates the improvement in TC intensity prediction with a lead time longer than 2 days and the TC’s peak intensity forecast is improved by 18 hPa. The additional assimilation of the GNSS-R wind speed observation further reduces the wind speed error in the low-level analysis by 12% and 5% under the standard and SCL radar assimilation framework, respectively. GNSS-R wind assimilation leads to a further 6-hPa improvement in TC’s peak intensity. How-ever, the sampling error introduced by the SCL method restrains the effect of GNSS-R assimilation. Sensitivity experiments with different GNSS-R data arrangements show that better GNSS-R wind coverage and additional wind direction information can further improve the TC analysis.
- Data assimilation
- Global positioning systems (GPS)
- Numerical weather prediction/forecasting
- Radars/Radar observations
- Satellite observations
- Tropical cyclones
FingerprintDive into the research topics of 'Improving Analysis and Prediction of Tropical Cyclones by Assimilating Radar and GNSS-R Wind Observations: Ensemble Data Assimilation and Observing System Simulation Experiments Using a Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean Model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.
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