I-deals as a Human Resource Initiative: Exciting Innovation or Passing Fad?

Arup Varma, Chun Hsiao Wang, Hyun Mi Park, Parth Patel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


As the workplace continuously reinvents itself due to advances in technology, changes in society, and unexpected events like COVID-19, both employers and employees are employing idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) to allow for flexibility for both sides. This chapter addresses i-deals from a human resources (HR) perspective, by focusing on three critical themes. First, we discuss how organizations effectively institutionalize i-deals, and how such i-deals impact human resource philosophy and practices, given that HR departments often lead the effort to institutionalize such deals through individualized and fair HR practices. Next, we explore how supervisors can make sure that i-deals are fair and effective. Following this, we discuss where i-deals fit in the international human resource management (IHRM) context. A total of fourteen future research directions are identified with particular emphasis on practical HR perspectives. Finally, this chapter constructs a bridge between the two disciplines through drawing upon established literatures from i-deals and IHRM, to extending our current knowledge through both theoretical and practical lenses.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIdiosyncratic Deals at Work
Subtitle of host publicationExploring Individual, Organizational, and Societal Perspectives
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9783030885168
ISBN (Print)9783030885151
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • HR policies
  • HR practices
  • I-deals
  • IHRM
  • Organizational climate


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