Hydrothermal synthesis of barium titanate

Huei Jyh Chen, Yu Wen Chen

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Barium titanate fine particles were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The synthesis was preformed at a temperature between 75 and 180 °C and for 10 min to 96 h. The reactions were carried out in a strong alkaline solution. Ba(OH)2·8H2O was used as the Ba-precursor material. Various Ti precursors were used to investigate their effects on the properties of BaTiO3. The BaTiO3 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption, and differential scanning calorimetry. XRD showed that the as-synthesized BaTiO3 powders have the BaTiO3 structure. The particle size of the Ti precursor has a strong influence on the size and morphology of barium titanate. The particle size of BaTiO3 was the largest when synthesized at 120 °C for 24 h by using anatase TiO2 (Merck) precursor. The particle size was about 0.1 μm when using TiO2 (70% anatase and 30% rutile, Degussa P25) or Ti(OH)4 as the precursor. The BaTiO3 powder was a porous structure when using Ti(OH)4 as the precursor. In addition, the particle size and morphology were dependent on the synthesis temperature. At 85 °C, the morphology of the powder was small crystal and an agglomerate of clusters. At 180 °C, the morphology of the powder was large (∼130 nm), uniform, and nearly monodisperse particles. Extending the synthesis time has no significant influence on the size and morphology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-483
Number of pages11
JournalIndustrial and Engineering Chemistry Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 5 Feb 2003


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