Hydrogenated Anatase and Rutile TiO2for Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes

Jagabandhu Patra, Shu Chi Wu, Ing Chi Leu, Chun Chen Yang, Rajendra S. Dhaka, Shigeto Okada, Hsiu Liang Yeh, Chieh Ming Hsieh, Bor Kae Chang, Jeng Kuei Chang

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27 Scopus citations


Defective transition metal oxides prepared via a hydrogenation treatment have attracted growing attention for use as electrode materials of batteries and supercapacitors due to their improved electrochemical properties. In this work, two TiO2 phases, namely, rutile (TiO2-R) and anatase (TiO2-A), and their hydrogenated phases (denoted with the prefix "H") are investigated as anodes for sodium-ion batteries. The charge-discharge properties of both phases can be enhanced via a high-pressure hydrogenation treatment. For example, H-TiO2-A exhibits exceptional high-rate performance (100 mA h g-1 at 10,000 mA g-1 vs 5 mA h g-1 at the same current rate for TiO2-A) and great cycling stability (80% capacity retention after 4500 cycles). The introduction of oxygen vacancies increases the electronic and ionic conductivity of TiO2 and the disordered structure offers more active sites for electrochemical reactions. The H-TiO2-R and H-TiO2-A electrodes are compared for sodium-ion battery applications. The superior performance of the former electrode is supported by the generalized gradient approximation Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof density functional calculation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5738-5746
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number6
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2021


  • crystalline phase effects
  • high-pressure hydrogenation
  • oxide anode
  • oxygen deficiency
  • oxygen vacancy


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