tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes the 3'-5' incorporation of guanosine into position -1 (G-1) of tRNAHis. G-1 is unique to tRNAHis and is crucial for recognition by histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HisRS). Yeast Thg1 requires ATP for G-1 addition to tRNAHis opposite A73, whereas archaeal Thg1 requires either ATP or GTP for G-1 addition to tRNAHis opposite C73. Paradoxically, human Thg1 (HsThg1) can add G-1 to tRNAsHis with A73 (cytoplasmic) and C73 (mitochondrial). As N73 is immediately followed by a CCA end (positions 74–76), how HsThg1 prevents successive 3'-5' incorporation of G-1/G-2/G-3 into mitochondrial tRNAHis (tRNAmHis) through a template-dependent mechanism remains a puzzle. We showed herein that mature native human tRNAmHis indeed contains only G-1. ATP was absolutely required for G-1 addition to tRNAmHis by HsThg1. Although HsThg1 could incorporate more than one GTP into tRNAmHisin vitro, a single-GTP incorporation prevailed when the relative GTP level was low. Surprisingly, HsThg1 possessed a tRNA-inducible GTPase activity, which could be inhibited by ATP. Similar activity was found in other high-eukaryotic dual-functional Thg1 enzymes, but not in yeast Thg1.