Macular degeneration (MD) is a group of diseases characterized by irreversible and progressive vision loss. Patients with MD suffer from severely impaired central vision, especially elderly people. Currently, only one type of MD, wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), can be treated with anti-vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) drugs. Other types of MD remain difficult to treat. With the advent of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their differentiation into retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), it is promising to treat patients with MD by transplantation of hPSC-derived RPE into the subretinal space. In this review, the current progress in hPSC-derived RPE transplantation for the treatment of patients with MD is described from bench to bedside, including hPSC differentiation into RPE and the characterization and usage of hPSC-derived RPE for transplantation into patients with MD.