How robots impact nurses' time pressure and turnover intention: A two-wave study

Tzu Ling Huang, Chieh Ni Wu, I. Chen Lee, Alice May Kuen Wong, Yea Ing Lotus Shyu, Lun Hui Ho, Gen Yih Liao, Ching I. Teng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Aims: To examine the relationships among effort ensuring robots' smooth operation (EERSO), time pressure, missed care, and nurses' turnover intention, and how robot performance moderates such relations. Background: Robots may reduce nurses' workload but typically still require some effort of nurses for robots' smooth operation. However, the negative impact of EERSO on nurses' workplace outcomes is unknown. Methods: This study used a two-wave follow-up design. Data were collected in a medical center in Taiwan, with first wave collected in 2019 and second wave collected between 2019 and 2020. A total of 331 participants were followed through the two waves. Results: EERSO is positively linked to missed care and time pressure. Time pressure is also positively linked to missed care and turnover intention. Positive robot performance weakens the positive link between EERSO and time pressure. Conclusion: Using robots may help reduce nurses' workload, but it also requires nurses' efforts to maintain robots' continuous operation, that is, EERSO. It may adversely impact nursing professional workplaces. Implications for Nursing Management: Nurse managers should reduce nurses' time pressure whilst suggest hospital managers to seek robots that require minimal EERSO.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3863-3873
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Nursing Management
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • nurse
  • robot
  • survey
  • time pressure
  • turnover intention
  • workforce


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