Purpose: Sleep is an important human activity. Comfortable sensing and accurate analysis in sleep monitoring is beneficial to many healthcare and medical applications. From 2020, owing to the COVID‑19 pandemic that spreads between people when they come into close physical contact with one another, the willingness to go to hospital for receiving care has reduced; care-at-home is the trend in modern healthcare. Therefore, a home-use and real-time sleep-staging system is developed in this paper. Methods: We developed and implemented a real-time sleep staging system that integrates a wearable eye mask for high-quality electroencephalogram/electrooculogram measurement and a mobile device with MobileNETV2 deep learning model for sleep-stage identification. In the experiments, 25 all-night recordings were acquired, 17 of which were used for training, and the remaining eight were used for testing. Results: The averaged scoring agreements for the wake, light sleep, deep sleep, and rapid eye movement stages were 85.20%, 87.17%, 82.87%, and 89.30%, respectively, for our system compared with the manual scoring of PSG recordings. In addition, the mean absolute errors of four objective sleep measurements, including sleep efficiency, total sleep time, sleep onset time, and wake after sleep onset time were 1.68%, 7.56 min, 5.50 min, and 3.94 min, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the proposed system and manual PSG scoring in terms of the percentage of each stage and the objective sleep measurements. Conclusion: These experimental results demonstrate that our system provides high scoring agreements in sleep staging and unbiased sleep measurements owing to the use of EEG and EOG signals and powerful mobile computing based on deep learning networks. These results also suggest that our system is applicable for home-use real-time sleep monitoring.
- Automatic sleep-staging method
- Eye mask
- Home use
- Mobile platform
- Real time