Highly thermally stable novolac derivatives and their properties in epoxy composites

Hsin Ho Wu, Peter P. Chu

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Two diazo-coupling novolac derivative resins (carbonyl phenyl azo novolac resin and carbonyl phenol-biphenylene azo novolac resin) were used as flame retardants. The cured resins exhibited elevated glass-transition temperatures from 115°C (blank) to 195 and 167°C, respectively. The char yield at 800°C was increased, which elaborated the effectiveness of flame retardancy with evaluated limiting oxygen, indices around 36 to 40. This was mainly attributed to the increased crosslink densities and highly aromatic contents in the modified phenol novolac derivative resins, which exhibited higher thermal degradation energies. Furthermore, the more effective flame retardancy was expected because of the loss of nitrogen during combustion. Through the evaluation of the cooperative flame retardancy in. the organic/inorganic hybrid with char yield and increasing limiting oxygen index percentage, the effects of the filler showed cooperative flame retardancy only with the appropriate addition and with a difference in the crosslinking densities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3782-3790
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2009


  • Azo polymers
  • Flame retardance
  • Synthesis
  • Thermal properties
  • Thermodynamics


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