With a high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal technique, a new barium lead borate, [Ba3Pb(H2O)][B11O19(OH)3] (1), has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and infrared and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The structure of1contains planar thick layers of borates with the Ba2+cations at sites in the inter- and intralayer space. Each layer consists of three single sheets. The central sheet is very corrugated and is built up from the fundamental building block (FBB) . On both sides of the central sheet there are borate single chains formed of the very rare FBB viacorner-sharing. This FBB was first observed in a high-pressure polymorph of CaB2O4. These chains are linked into a sheet by PbO5(H2O) polyhedra, which are further linked to the central sheet by sharing vertices between triangles and tetrahedra to form a thick layer. The IR spectrum shows the presence of hydroxyl groups of HBO4, water molecules, BO3triangles, and BO4tetrahedra. The presence of BO3and BO4polyhedra was also confirmed by11B MAS NMR spectroscopy.