The synthesis, characterization and mesomorphic properties of a new type of liquid crystalline compound, the 2,5-bis(3,4,5-trialkoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 3a-3h, are reported. These heterocyclic compounds are derived from unsaturated 1,3,4-oxadiazole as the core group, and obtained by the condensation reaction of 3,4,5-trialkoxybenzoic acid N-(3,4,5-trialkoxybenzoyl)-hydrazides and phosphorus oxychloride in toluene under reflux. All compounds were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The mesomorphic properties of these and the related compounds 1, 2 were characterized and studied by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy. The formation of columnar mesophases was found to be dependent on the numbers of alkoxy sidechains. The compounds 3 exhibited hexagonal columnar (Colh) phases, however compounds 1, 2 formed crystalline phases. Compounds 3b-3e with shorter carbon chains were room temperature liquid crystals. Polar induction by nitrogen and/or oxygen atoms on the heterocyclic core ring might be responsible for the formation and better observed mesomorphic properties in this type of compound.