Hakka migrant hometown associations: Development and social network patterns

Han Pi Chang, Chen Chi Chang, Wei An Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study sought to review the development of Hakka migrant hometown associations and to explore the social network patterns of these associations. To better understand migrant associations in different contexts, research was conducted in various countries or regions. The study examined the relationships between and among associations from an organizational perspective. Using the criteria of density and centralization, the social network patterns are classified into four network types: (1) hierarchical, (2) clique, (3) peer-to-peer, and (4) formative. According to the findings, the network characteristics of different associations enable Hakka associations to flourish in the immigration countries and preserve Hakka culture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)386-399
Number of pages14
JournalAsian and Pacific Migration Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Hakka ethnic group
  • migrant hometown associations
  • organizational social network
  • social network patterns
  • social network types
  • typology


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