Growth kinetics and surface properties of single-crystalline aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanowires on silicon substrates

S. L. Cheng, S. Y. Liao, J. H. Syu

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4 Scopus citations


We present here the results from a systematic investigation on the growth kinetics and surface properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanowires synthesized on (0 0 1)Si substrates under different hydrothermal conditions. The as-synthesized vertical AZO nanowires exhibited a hydrophilic characteristic and their crystal structures were determined to be perfectly single crystalline with the axis of the wire parallel to the [0 0 0 1] direction. TEM and EDS results revealed that the as-synthesized AZO nanowires have tapered tips, and the Al-doped concentration in the AZO nanowires was about 1.6 at%. After a series of SEM examinations, the average length of AZO nanowires synthesized at each temperature studied was found to follow a linear relationship with the reaction time, indicating that the hydrothermal growth of AZO nanowires was a reaction-controlled process. The activation energy for linear growth of AZO nanowires on Si substrate, as obtained from an Arrhenius plot, was found to be about 46 kJ/mol. From UV-vis spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Si substrate coated with vertically-aligned AZO nanowire arrays exhibited remarkably reduced reflectance (10-12%) over a wide range of visible wavelengths (400-800 nm) and angles of light incidence (8-60°). The good broadband and omnidirectional antireflection characteristics can be attributed to the light trapping effect and the graded refractive index resulting from the tapered AZO nanowire structures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5271-5277
Number of pages7
JournalCeramics International
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2016


  • Activation energy
  • Al-doped ZnO nanowires
  • Antireflection
  • Growth kinetic
  • Wettability


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