Grey relation analysis of causes for change orders in highway construction

Chao Hui Wu, Ting Ya Hsieh, Wen Lon Cheng, Shih Tong Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Change orders issued during the construction of the second national highway in Taiwan have been categorized depending on whether they originate from owner, design consultant, on-site contractor unit, or external parties. A total of 34 change order causes are found for this construction project. Grey relation analysis (GRA) was used in this study, and change orders in the second national highway construction project in Taiwan are characterized by the following conclusions: (1) poorly executed design drawings, policy changes and new management requirements are not important causes of change orders; and (2) more roadways should be designed as viaducts to avoid levying more land and negotiating with landowner.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-520
Number of pages12
JournalConstruction Management and Economics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2004


  • Change orders
  • Entropy method
  • Grey relation analysis
  • Highway construction
  • Taiwan


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