Graphene reduction dynamics unveiled

Hung Chieh Tsai, Hung Wei Shiu, Min Chiang Chuang, Chia Hao Chen, Ching Yuan Su, Jonathon David White, Wei Yen Woon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The reduction dynamics of micron-sized defects created on chemical vapor deposition-(CVD) grown graphene through scanning probe lithography (SPL) is reported here. CVD-grown graphene was locally oxidized using SPL and subsequently reduced, making use of a focused beam of soft x-rays. During this whole process, the reduction dynamics was monitored using a combination of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and micro-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (μ-XPS). After x-ray reduction, the graphene film was found to be chemically identical (μ-XPS) but structurally different (μ-RS) from the original graphene. During reduction the population of C. Cbonds was found to first increase dramatically and then decrease exponentially. By modeling the dynamics of the C=O→C. O→C-C→C=C reduction process with four coupled-rate equations and three rate constants, the conversion from C-Cto C=C bonds was found to be the limiting rate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number31003
Journal2D Materials
Issue number3
StatePublished - 6 Aug 2015


  • Defects
  • Graphene
  • Photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Reduction
  • Scanning probe lithography


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