Genomic plasticity between human and mycobacterial DNA: A review

Lawal Danjuma, Mok Pooi Ling, Rukman Awang Hamat, Akon Higuchi, Abdullah A. Alarfaj, Marlina, Giovanni Benelli, Palanisamy Arulselvan, Mariappan Rajan, Suresh Kumar Subbiah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a remarkable ability of long-term persistence despite vigorous host immunity and prolonged therapy. The bacteria persist in secure niches such as the mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow and reactivate the disease, leading to therapeutic failure. Many bacterial cells can remain latent within a diseased tissue so that their genetic material can be incorporated into the genetic material of the host tissue. This incorporated genetic material reproduces in a manner similar to that of cellular DNA. After the cell division, the incorporated gene is reproduced normally and distributed proportionately between the two progeny. This inherent adoption of long-term persistence and incorporating the bacterial genetic material into that of the host tissue remains and is considered imperative for microbial advancement and chemotherapeutic resistance; moreover, new evidence indicates that the bacteria might pass on genetic material to the host DNA sequence. Several studies focused on the survival mechanism of M. tuberculosis in the host immune system with the aim of helping the efforts to discover new drugs and vaccines against tuberculosis. This review explored the mechanisms through which this bacterium affects the expression of human genes. The first part of the review summarizes the current knowledge about the interactions between microbes and host microenvironment, with special reference to the M. tuberculosis neglected persistence in immune cells and stem cells. Then, we focused on how bacteria can affect human genes and their expression. Furthermore, we analyzed the literature base on the process of cell death during tuberculosis infection, giving particular emphasis to gene methylation as an inherited process in the neutralization of possibly injurious gene components in the genome. The final section discusses recent advances related to the M. tuberculosis interaction with host epigenetic circuitry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-47
Number of pages10
JournalTuberculosis
Volume107
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Keywords

  • Epigenetic circuitry
  • Immune and stem cells
  • Methylation
  • Micro-environment
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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