From Bench to Bedside: Clinical and Biomedical Investigations on Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotypes and Risk Factors for Albuminuria

Po Jen Hsiao, Chia Jen Hsiao, Fu Ru Tsai, Yen Lin Hou, Chih Chien Chiu, Wen Fang Chiang, Kun Lin Wu, Yuan Kuei Li, Chen Lin, Jenq Shyong Chan, Chi Wen Chang, Chi Ming Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


An extrahepatic manifestation of nephropathies can be a feature of the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for nephropathies and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The correlation between HCV genotypes and albuminuria is still unclear. In this study, investigations have been done for the biomedical tools and methodologies used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) public database. We searched the 2007–2016 NHANES public database to retrieve data regarding the different HCV genotypes and clinical scenarios. This study attempted to investigate the impacts of HCV genetic diversity, associated comorbidities, and racial differences on albuminuria. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was the primary endpoint. Among 40,856 participants, 336 participants with positive and 237 with negative HCV RNA tests were analyzed, excluding 14,454 participants with negative HCV antibodies and 25,828 which were missed. After controlling for sex, race, education level, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B, alcohol use, and body mass index (BMI) with a generalized linear equation, HCV genotype 2 was more likely than any other genotype to cause albuminuria based on the urine ACR (p < 0.001). The generalized linear equation also demonstrated a significantly higher urine ACR, including hepatitis B (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001), and smoking (p = 0.026). In summary, the patients with HCV genotype 2 presented with increased albuminuria in comparison with other HCV genotypes in this 10-year retrospective analysis. HCV infection could be a risk factor of CKD; early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may improve clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number509
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
  • albuminuria
  • chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype
  • nephropathies
  • proteinuria


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