Fog and precipitation chemistry at a mid-land forest in central Taiwan

Yang Ling Liang, Teng Chiu Lin, Jeen Liang Hwong, Neng Huei Lin, Chiao Ping Wang

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14 Scopus citations


We analyzed fog and bulk precipitation chemistry at a cloud forest in central Taiwan where mountain agriculture activities are highest. T ere were 320 foggy days (visibility <1000 m) recorded between April 2005 and March 2006. Fog was most frequent between April 2005 and July 2005 and in March 2006 (153/153 d) and least frequent in January 2006 (21/31 d). T e total fog duration was 2415 h, representing 28% of the sampling period. Compared with bulk precipitation, fog was disproportionally enriched in NO 3- and SO 4 2- relative to K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, and NH 4 +, resulting in higher a content of nitric acid and sulfuric acid than weak acids or neutral salts and, therefore, higher acidity (median pH, 4.9) in fog than in bulk precipitation (median and mean pH, 5.5). T e very high input of NH 4 + (47 kg N ha -1 yr -1) through bulk precipitation suggests that the use of fertilizer (ammonium sulfate and animal manure) associated with mountain agriculture has a major impact on atmospheric deposition at the surrounding forest ecosystems. T e input of inorganic N reached 125 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and likely exceeded the biological demand of the forest ecosystem. Sulfate is the most abundant anion in fog at Chi-tou and in precipitation at various forests throughout Taiwan, suggesting that the emission and transport of large quantities of SO 2, the precursor of SO 4 2-, is an island-wide environmental issue.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)627-636
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2009


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