Feature line embedding based on support vector machine for hyperspectral image classification

Ying Nong Chen, Tipajin Thaipisutikul, Chin Chuan Han, Tzu Jui Liu, Kuo Chin Fan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


In this paper, a novel feature line embedding (FLE) algorithm based on support vector machine (SVM), referred to as SVMFLE, is proposed for dimension reduction (DR) and for improving the performance of the generative adversarial network (GAN) in hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. The GAN has successfully shown high discriminative capability in many applications. However, owing to the traditional linear-based principal component analysis (PCA) the pre-processing step in the GAN cannot effectively obtain nonlinear information; to overcome this problem, feature line embedding based on support vector machine (SVMFLE) was proposed. The proposed SVMFLE DR scheme is implemented through two stages. In the first scatter matrix calculation stage, FLE withinclass scatter matrix, FLE between-scatter matrix, and support vector-based FLE between-class scatter matrix are obtained. Then in the second weight determination stage, the training sample dispersion indices versus the weight of SVM-based FLE between-class matrix are calculated to determine the best weight between-scatter matrices and obtain the final transformation matrix. Since the reduced feature space obtained by the SVMFLE scheme is much more representative and discriminative than that obtained using conventional schemes, the performance of the GAN in HSI classification is higher. The effectiveness of the proposed SVMFLE scheme with GAN or nearest neighbor (NN) classifiers was evaluated by comparing them with state-of-the-art methods and using three benchmark datasets. According to the experimental results, the performance of the proposed SVMFLE scheme with GAN or NN classifiers was higher than that of the state-of-the-art schemes in three performance indices. Accuracies of 96.3%, 89.2%, and 87.0% were obtained for the Salinas, Pavia University, and Indian Pines Site datasets, respectively. Similarly, this scheme with the NN classifier also achieves 89.8%, 86.0%, and 76.2% accuracy rates for these three datasets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130
Pages (from-to)1-29
Number of pages29
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • Dimension reduction
  • Feature line embedding
  • Generative adversarial networks
  • HSI classification
  • Support vector machine


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