FDD: a deep learning–based steel defect detectors

Fityanul Akhyar, Ying Liu, Chao Yung Hsu, Timothy K. Shih, Chih Yang Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Surface defects are a common issue that affects product quality in the industrial manufacturing process. Many companies put a lot of effort into developing automated inspection systems to handle this issue. In this work, we propose a novel deep learning–based surface defect inspection system called the forceful steel defect detector (FDD), especially for steel surface defect detection. Our model adopts the state-of-the-art cascade R-CNN as the baseline architecture and improves it with the deformable convolution and the deformable RoI pooling to adapt to the geometric shape of defects. Besides, our model adopts the guided anchoring region proposal to generate bounding boxes with higher accuracies. Moreover, to enrich the point of view of input images, we propose the random scaling and the ultimate scaling techniques in the training and inference process, respectively. The experimental studies on the Severstal steel dataset, NEU steel dataset, and DAGM dataset demonstrate that our proposed model effectively improved the detection accuracy in terms of the average recall (AR) and the mean average precision (mAP) compared to state-of-the-art defect detection methods. We expect our innovation to accelerate the automation of industrial manufacturing process by increasing the productivity and by sustaining high product qualities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1093-1107
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Deformable convolution
  • Deformable RoI pooling
  • Feature pyramid network
  • Guided anchoring
  • Region proposal network
  • Steel defect detection


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