Factors affecting interannual variation in late summer rainfall in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

Duc Tu Dinh, Hai Bui-Manh, Trung Hung Le, Yen Ta Fu, Cheng Chih Lin, Ming Cheng Yen

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Based on station monthly observational statistics, the major rainfall in the Red River Delta (RRD) of Vietnam occurs in late summer (July–September) with conspicuous year-to-year variation. Using the ± 0.8 of the seasonal total rainfall standard deviation as criteria, seven wet and six dry years are identified over the period 1983–2015. In addition to the 70.5% of the seasonal total rainfall contributed by the heavy rainfall days, the distinct heavy rainfall accumulation difference between wet and dry years seems to fundamentally establish these two separated extreme wet and dry groups. As revealed from further analyses, the large variability in rainfall is attributed to the influence of tropical cyclones (TCs) and 7–24- and 30–60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs); in particular, the number of TCs affecting the RRD and rainfall produced by TCs are more (less) during the wet (dry) years, and the amplitudes of ISOs are also enhanced (reduced). In many cases, heavy rainfall days are induced by the combined effect of both ISOs and TCs, while some heavy rainfall events are mainly triggered by ISOs. It is found from the water vapor budget analyses that an anomalous cyclone (anticyclone) dominates over the Indochina Peninsula in wet (dry) years, resulting in more (less) water vapor being transported to the RRD, whereas the anomalous convergence (divergence) of water vapor flux leads to the maintenance of excessive (insufficient) rainfall over the RRD. However, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing shows minor effects on the interannual variation in rainfall in the RRD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12
JournalTerrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • ENSO
  • Interannual variation
  • Intraseasonal oscillation
  • Tropical cyclone
  • Water vapor flux


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