Facilitating cognitive processes during EFL smartwatch-supported learning activities in authentic contexts

Rustam Shadiev, Wu Yuin Hwang, Tzu Yu Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In this study, we designed a game-based English as a foreign language (EFL) learning activity for junior high school students for the application of newly learned knowledge to the real world. The learning activity was combined with physical exercises such as walking. Smartwatches were used to help students create learning content during the learning activity and monitor their physical activity. We aimed to explore how learning activity supported by smartwatches can facilitate cognitive processes such as Remembering (i.e., remembering new knowledge), Understanding (i.e., understanding new knowledge) and Applying (i.e., applying acquired knowledge in new situations). We also explored student learning experiences during the smartwatch-supported language learning process. Our results showed that the posttest student's cognitive processes level was significantly higher than that of the pretest. From the interviews, we found that the students’ learning experience can be categorised into EFL learning, physical exercise, smartwatch usage, learning satisfaction and problems. The results revealed that the learning activity supported by smartwatches was useful for language learning and physical exercise, and the students were satisfied with their learning experiences. The students used smartwatch functions such as texting, recording, sharing and monitoring their language practice in the real world. Based on our results, we suggest designing real-world language learning activities supported by smartwatches as they may facilitate cognitive processes from a basic to a higher level because they enable students to learn new knowledge and apply it in everyday life. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic? Acquiring new knowledge in class and then applying it to the real world is important. Smartwatches have the potential to facilitate cognitive processes associated with language learning. Exploring learning experiences is important in technology-assisted language learning. What this paper adds? An understanding of how smartwatch-supported language learning facilitates cognitive processes. A presentation of student learning experiences in a smartwatch-supported language learning environment. Our study design and results might serve as a starting point in the research area of smartwatch-supported learning. Implications for practice or policy The design of learning tasks requires applying newly learned knowledge to the real world and combining it with physical exercise. To make learning experiences more successful, we need to design relevant and meaningful tasks. The use of our proposed eight-step approach will make learning experiences fruitful.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1230-1243
Number of pages14
JournalBritish Journal of Educational Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2021


  • authentic contexts
  • cognitive processes
  • EFL
  • mobile game-based learning activity


Dive into the research topics of 'Facilitating cognitive processes during EFL smartwatch-supported learning activities in authentic contexts'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this