Extreme Poleward Expanding Super Plasma Bubbles Over Asia-Pacific Region Triggered by Tonga Volcano Eruption During the Recovery-Phase of Geomagnetic Storm

P. K. Rajesh, C. C.H. Lin, J. T. Lin, C. Y. Lin, J. Y. Liu, T. Matsuo, C. Y. Huang, M. Y. Chou, J. Yue, M. Nishioka, H. Jin, J. M. Choi, S. P. Chen, Marty Chou, H. F. Tsai

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Tonga volcano eruption of 15 January 2022 unleashed a variety of atmospheric perturbations, coinciding with the recovery-phase of a geomagnetic storm. The ensuing thermospheric variations created rare display of extreme poleward-expanding conjugate plasma bubbles seen in the rate of total electron content index over 100–150°E, reaching ∼40°N geographic latitude. This is associated with fluctuations in FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7/C2) ion-density measurements and spread-F in ionograms. Preceding to this, an unusually strong pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) occurred in the global ionospheric specification (GIS) electron density profiles derived from F7/C2 observations. The GIS also revealed a decrease of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest density due to the storm impact. Reduced E-region conductivity by volcano-induced waves and enhanced F-region wind, further accelerated by reduced ion-drag over the EIA, apparently intensified the PRE. Accompanied with the strong PRE, volcano-induced seed perturbations triggered the super plasma bubble activity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2022GL099798
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume49
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - 16 Aug 2022

Keywords

  • equatorial plasma bubbles
  • Formosat-7/COSMIC-2
  • global ionospheric specification
  • ionospheric irregularities
  • ROTI
  • Tonga volcano eruption

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