Extended application of a novel phase calibration approach of multiple-frequency range imaging to the Chung-Li and MU VHF radars

Jenn Shyong Chen, Ching Lun Su, Yen Hsyang Chu, Gernot Hassenpflug, Marius Zecha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Multiple-frequency range imaging (RIM), designed to improve the range resolution of radar echo distribution, is now available for the recently upgraded Chung-Li VHF radar (24.9°N, 121.1°E). To complete the RIM technique of this radar, a novel phase calibration approach, proposed initially for the Ostsee Wind (OSWIN) VHF radar, was employed to examine the effects of phase bias and the range-weighting function on the received radar echoes. The estimated phase bias indicated a time delay of ~1.83 μs for the signal in the radar system. In contrast, such a time delay is more difficult to determine from the phase distribution of two-frequency cross-correlation functions. The same calibration approach was also applied successfully to the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar (34.85°N, 136.11°E) and revealed a time delay of ~0.33 μs for the radar parameters employed. These calibration results for various radars demonstrate the general usability of the proposed calibration approach. With the high-resolution performance of RIM, some small-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) billows, double-layer structures, and plumelike structures in the troposphere that cannot be seen in height-time intensity plots have been recognized in present observations. The billows and double layers were found to be closely related to strong vertical wind shear and small Richardson number, supporting the hypothesis of a dynamic process of KH instability. On the other hand, the plumelike structures were observed to grow out of a wavy layer and could be attributed to saturation and breaking of gravity waves. These fine structures have shown some remarkable features resolved by the RIM method applied to VHF radars in the lower atmosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2488-2500
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009


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