Evolution of the Intermetallic Compounds in Ni/Sn-2.5Ag/Ni Microbumps for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits

H. H. Hsu, Y. T. Huang, S. Y. Huang, T. C. Chang, Albert T. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ni/Sn-2.5Ag/Ni samples were used to simulate the microbumps in three-dimensional (3D) packaging. The annealed test was adopted to observe the microstructure of intermetallic compound formation at 100°C, 125°C, and 150°C up to 1000 h. In the Ni/Sn-2.5Ag/Ni, predominant phases of layer-type Ni3Sn4 and Ag3Sn particles could be seen under the thermal treatment. The formation of Ni3Sn4 followed a parabolic rate law at each aging temperature. Due to the limited solder volume, the remaining solder of the microbump was completely exhausted after long-time annealing at 150°C. The activationenergy for Ni3Sn4 formation in the Ni/Sn-2.5Ag/Ni microbump was 171.8 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the consumption of the Ni under bump metallization (UBM) was estimated based on the mass balance of Ni atoms during the interfacial reaction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3888-3895
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Volume44
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 5 Oct 2015

Keywords

  • 3D IC
  • intermetallic compounds
  • kinetics analysis
  • Microbump

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