Evidence for the geographic control of additional layer formation in the low-latitude ionosphere

C. C. Hsiao, J. Y. Liu, R. T. Tsunoda, S. Fukao, S. Saroso, K. Nozaki, V. L. Badillo, F. T. Berkey, S. W. Chen, M. Yamamoto

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16 Scopus citations


Ionograms recorded from four ionosonde stations along the Western Pacific (WestPac) chain (about 122°E geographic, 192°E geomagnetic) are employed to study the occurrence of an additional layer at F-region altitudes during the 1-15 March 1998 WestPac campaign. It was found that the appearance of the additional layer at the local noontime hours is a typical phenomenon at Parepare (4°S geographic, 14.8°S geomagnetic). The additional layer was not clearly observed at Cebu (0.4°S geomagnetic) and Manila (3.7°N geomagnetic), and was not observed at Chung-Li (14.2°N geomagnetic) during the campaign. Furthermore, the additional layer was not seen from any of the station on 11 March 1998, a magnetically disturbed day. These results indicate that the fountain effect (produced by E×B motion) plays an important role in the formation of the additional layer. However, they also suggest the dynamics of the layer formation are in some way influenced by the location of the station relative to the geographic equator.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1293-1297
Number of pages5
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number6-7
StatePublished - 2001


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