Evaluation of diffusion barrier between pure Sn and Te

Chang Yen Ko, Albert T. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


An electroless Ni layer is often chosen as an effective diffusion barrier in thermoelectric modules. Thermal aging can form a thick layer of NiTe. This study investigates the growth kinetics of NiTe intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The apparent activation energy was determined to be 70.9 kJ/mol. Ni/Co was also selected as an alternative barrier because Co-Te did not form IMCs. Results show that Co can effectively suppress the voids formed at the interfaces. After high-temperature annealing, a very thin Ni-Te IMC formed between Co-P and Te.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3320-3324
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2012


  • Diffusion barrier
  • Electroless cobalt
  • Electroless nickel
  • Pb-free solder
  • Tellurium
  • Thermoelectric material


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