Enhancement of orographic precipitation in Jeju Island during the passage of Typhoon Khanun (2012)

Jung Tae Lee, Kyeong Yeon Ko, Dong In Lee, Cheol Hwan You, Yu Chieng Liou

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15 Scopus citations


Typhoon Khanun caused over 226 mm of accumulated rainfall for 6 h (0700 to 1300 UTC), localized around the summit of Mt. Halla (height 1950 m), with a slanted rainfall pattern to the northeast. In this study, we investigated the enhancement mechanism for precipitation near the mountains as the typhoon passed over Jeju Island via dual-Doppler radar analysis and simple trajectory of passive tracers using a retrieved wind field. The analysis of vertical profiles of the mountain region show marked features matching the geophysical conditions. In the central mountain region, a strong wind (≥ 7 m s− 1) helps to lift low-level air up the mountain. The time taken for lifting is longer than the theoretical time required for raindrop growth via condensation. The falling particles (seeder) from the upper cloud were also one of the reasons for an increase in rainfall via the accretion process from uplifted cloud water (feeder). The lifted air and falling particles both contributed to the heavy rainfall in the central region. In contrast, on the leeward side, the seeder-feeder mechanism was important in the formation of strong radar reflectivity. The snow particles (above 5 km) were accelerated by strong downward winds (≤−6 m s− 1). Meanwhile, the nonlinear jumping flow (hydraulic jump) raised feeders (shifted from the windward side) to the upper level where particles fall. To support these development processes, a numerical simulation using cloud-resolving model theoretically carried out. The accreting of hydrometeors may be one of the key reasons why the lee side has strong radar reflectivity, and a lee side weighted rainfall pattern even though lee side includes no strong upward air motion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58-71
Number of pages14
JournalAtmospheric Research
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • Hydraulic jump
  • Jeju Island
  • Khanun
  • Orographic precipitation
  • Seeder-feeder


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