Enhanced Geographic Routing with One- and Two-Hop Movement Information in Opportunistic Ad Hoc Networks

Mohd Yaseen Mir, Hengbing Zhu, Chih Lin Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Opportunistic ad hoc networks are characterized by intermittent and infrastructure-less connectivity among mobile nodes. Because of the lack of up-to-date network topology information and frequent link failures, geographic routing utilizes location information and adopts the store–carry–forward data delivery model to relay messages in a delay-tolerant manner. This paper proposes a message-forwarding policy based on movement patterns (MPMF). First, one- and two-hop location information in a geographic neighborhood is exploited to select relay nodes moving closer to a destination node. Message-forwarding decisions are made by referring to selected relay nodes’ weight values obtained by calculating the contact frequency of each node with the destination node. Second, when relays in the vicinity of a message-carrying node are not qualified due to the sparse node density and nodal motion status, the destination’s movement and the location information of a one-hop relay are jointly utilized to improve the message-forwarding decision. If the one-hop relay is not closer to the destination node or moving away from it, its centrality value in the network is used instead. Based on both synthetic and real mobility scenarios, the simulation results show that the proposed policy performs incomparable efforts to some typical routing policies, such as Epidemic, PRoPHETv2, temporal closeness and centrality-based (TCCB), transient community-based (TC), and geographic-based spray-and-relay (GSaR) routing policies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number214
JournalFuture Internet
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • data dissemination
  • delay-tolerant networks
  • geographic routing
  • message forwarding
  • mobile opportunistic networks
  • relay selection


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