Electromigration-induced back stress in critical solder length for three-dimensional integrated circuits

Y. T. Huang, H. H. Hsu, Albert T. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Because of the miniaturization of electronic devices, the reliability of electromigration has become a major concern when shrinking the solder dimensions in flip-chip joints. Fast reaction between solders and electrodes causes intermetallic compounds (IMCs) to form, which grow rapidly and occupy entire joints when solder volumes decrease. In this study, U-grooves were fabricated on Si chips as test vehicles. An electrode-solder-electrode sandwich structure was fabricated by using lithography and electroplating. Gaps exhibiting well-defined dimensions were filled with Sn3.5Ag solders. The gaps between the copper electrodes in the test sample were limited to less than 15 μm to simulate microbumps. The samples were stressed at various current densities at 100 C, 125 C, and 150 C. The morphological changes of the IMCs were observed, and the dimensions of the IMCs were measured to determine the kinetic growth of IMCs. Therefore, this study focused on the influence of back stress caused by microstructural evolution in microbumps.

Original languageEnglish
Article number034904
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 21 Jan 2014


Dive into the research topics of 'Electromigration-induced back stress in critical solder length for three-dimensional integrated circuits'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this