A growing number of studies have been conducted on digital game-based learning (DGBL). However, there has been a lack of attention paid to individuals' self-efficacy and learning performance in the implementation of DGBL. This study therefore investigated how the badge mechanism in DGBL enhanced users' self-efficacy in the subject domain of English as a foreign language. In the study, a digital game-based English learning environment was designed with a badge mechanism including digital badges, leaderboard ranking, and learning practice with star icons. A quasi-experimental design was implemented. A total of 50 third-grade elementary school students participated in this study. Hypotheses were tested, and data were analyzed using paired sample t tests, multiple regression analyses, linear regression analyses, and logistic regression analyses. The results show that the badge mechanism had a significant positive influence on the learners' self-efficacy and English learning performance. The study also investigated how self-efficacy could affect English learning performance, with the results revealing that it had a significant positive influence on learning performance. In addition, a subsequent analysis showed that those students with higher self-efficacy performed better than those with lower self-efficacy.
- digital badges
- digital game-based learning
- English as a foreign language
- English learning performance
- interactive learning environments