This study investigated applications of the electrochemical anodic oxidation process with Pt-FTO and Pt/MWCNTs-FTO glasses as anodes on the treatment of one of the most important emerging contaminants, naproxen. The anodes used in this study have been synthesized using commercial FTO, MWCNTs and Pt nanoparticles (PtNP). XRD patterns of Pt nanoparticles coated on FTO and MWCNTs revealed that MWCNTs can prevent the surface of PtNPs from sintering and thus provide a greater reaction sites density to interact with naproxen, which have also been confirmed by higher degradation and mineralization efficiencies in the Pt/MWCNTs-FTO system. Results from the CV analysis showed that the Pt-FTO and Pt/MWCNTs-FTO electrodes possessed dual functions of decreasing activation energy and interactions between hydroxyl radicals to effectively degrade naproxen. The lower the solution pH value, the better the degradation efficiency. The existence of humic acid indeed inhibited the degradation ability of naproxen due to the competitions in the multiple-component system. The electrochemical degradation processes were controlled by diffusion mechanism and two major intermediates of 2-acetyl-6-methoxynaphthalene and 2-(6-Hydroxy-2-naphthyl)propanoic acid were identified. This study has successfully demonstrated new, easy, flexible and effective anodic materials which can be feasibly applied to the electrochemical oxidation of naproxen.
- Electrochemical oxidation
- Platinum nanoparticles