Solid state gas sensors are a core enabling technology to a range of measurement applications including industrial, safety, and environmental monitoring. The technology associated with solid-state gas sensors has evolved in recent years with advances in materials, and improvements in processing and miniaturization. In this review, we examine the state-of-the-art of solid state gas sensors with the goal of understanding the core technology and approaches, various sensor design methods to provide targeted functionality, and future prospects in the field. The structure, detection mechanism, and sensing properties of several types of solid state gas sensors will be discussed. In particular, electrochemical cells (solid and liquid), impedance/resistance based sensors (metal oxide, polymer, and carbon based structures), and mechanical sensing structures (resonators, cantilevers, and acoustic wave devices) as well as sensor arrays and supporting technologies, are described. Development areas for this field includes increased control of material properties for improved sensor response and durability, increased integration and miniaturization, and new material systems, including nano-materials and nano-structures, to address shortcomings of existing solid state gas sensors.