A reliable and straightforward method was developed for the rapid determination of nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, isopropyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl-, hexyl-, and benzyl-parabens) in indoor dust by a mortar/pestle-free and column-free dual-vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (DVA-MSPD) technique. After that, they were determined by isotope-dilution ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qTOF-MS, or called UHPLC-HRMS) and operating in negative electrospray ionization mode. Optimization of the DVA-MSPD was done using Box-Behnken Design along with response surface methodology. Validation was done by measuring and calculating selectivity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQs), precision and trueness (accuracy) of intra- and inter-day analysis. The LOQs of the method ranged from 0.9 to 2.8 ng/g. High precisions for both intra- and inter-day analysis were obtained ranging from 1 to 8%. Excellent trueness (or mean extraction recovery) varied from 93 to 104%. The DVA-MSPD combined with isotope-dilution UHPLC-qTOF-MS was successfully applied to determine parabens in indoor dust samples from office rooms and private houses, and the total concentrations ranged from 55 to 686 ng/g.
- Dual-vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion
- Indoor dust analysis
- Isotope-dilution UHPLC-qTOF-MS