DTC-HSR: Distributed Topology Control and Hierarchical Self-Routing for Bluetooth Load Balancing Networks

Chih Min Yu, Meng Lin Ku, Li Chun Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article, a distributed topology control approach with hierarchical self-routing (DTC-HSR) is presented for Bluetooth low-energy (BLE) networks. First, the conventional star piconet is replaced by the designed mesh-ring subnet with better throughput and lower delay. To achieve the goal of load balancing design, two phases, including the leader selection and the topology construction are executed in the proposed approach. In the leader selection phase, each master node discovers its adjacent slave nodes to determine a leader master as a coordinator. In the topology construction phase, the local mesh-ring subnet is first formed and then the global mesh-ring subnets are interconnected into the desired DTC-HSR topology. To form the local mesh-ring subnet, each leader master computes the desired number of piconets with even link connectivity and distributes the piconet connection information for each node to form a mesh-ring subnet. In addition, each master node connects with the other local mesh-ring subnets via its associated bridge nodes, including slave nodes, intrabridges, and interbridges to create the definitive DTC-HSR scatternet. Afterward, a hierarchical self-routing strategy is jointly employed for the DTC-HSR to efficiently deliver routed packets through different mesh-ring subnets. Simulation results demonstrate that the DTC-HSR topology with the even connectivity feature outperforms the dual-ring tree (DRT) and cluster-based mesh (CBM) approaches in terms of network transmission and energy efficiency performances. The DTC-HSR configuration thus achieves efficient topology construction and hierarchical self-routing for load balancing in BLE networks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19545-19560
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number20
StatePublished - 15 Oct 2022


  • Hierarchical routing
  • load balance
  • mesh-ring network
  • topology construction


Dive into the research topics of 'DTC-HSR: Distributed Topology Control and Hierarchical Self-Routing for Bluetooth Load Balancing Networks'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this