Determination of optical nonlinearity with photothermal effect within a layered bismuth telluride

Jia Chi Lan, Te Yuan Chung, Cheng Maw Cheng, Jung Chun Andrew Huang, Chao Kuei Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this work, the photothermal nonlinearity within a layered bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is studied in detail. The dynamics of the optical nonlinearity with increasing photothermal effect are investigated via pump-probe spectroscopy. The difference between the thermally-induced and photon-induced nonlinearities was clarified and the entire photothermal nonlinearity was therefore sketched. Furthermore, by removing the thermally-induced background signal, the n2 without accumulated heat can then be estimated. For example, the n2 value is 2.80 × 10−8 cm2/W at a peak intensity of 12.81 MW/cm2. The results are compared with those obtained from another measurement to validate the reliability of the estimation. The working range of the n2 value is also discussed. To provide further validation of the feasibility of the proposed method, the photothermal nonlinearity within monolayer graphene is provided and discussed. This work provides an alternative method to deal with optical nonlinearity measurements that are subject to the photothermal effect, paving the way toward further related research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)176-185
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2023


  • Nonlinear refractive index
  • Optical nonlinearity
  • Photothermal effect
  • Photothermal nonlinearity
  • Z-scan


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