Determination of alkylphenolic residues in fresh fruits and vegetables by extractive steam distillation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Deng Kai Yang, Wang Hsien Ding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study describes a simple and sensitive method for determining the alkylphenolic compounds, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol isomers (4-NPs), and their monoethoxylates (4-t-OP1EO and 4-NP1EOs), in fresh fruits and vegetables. The method involves extracting a sample by a modified Nielson-Kryger steam distillation extraction using n-hexane for 1 h. The alkylphenolic compounds were identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Various pH values and amounts of NaCl added to the sample solution were evaluated as extraction conditions. The quantitation limit of this method was less than 0.2 ng/g in 10 g (fresh weight) of sample. Recovery of alkylphenolic compounds in spiked samples exceeded 64% while R.S.D. ranged from 1.0 to 9.8%. Alkylphenolic residues were detected in fresh fruits and vegetables at concentrations of 4-NPs and 4-t-OP from n.d. to 16 ng/g and from n.d. to 4.8 ng/g (fresh weight), respectively. NP1EO and OP1EO were always below the quantitation limit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)200-204
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Volume1088
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - 23 Sep 2005

Keywords

  • Alkylphenolic residues
  • Effective steam distillation
  • Fruits
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

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