Destruction of formaldehyde (HCHO) molecules via dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) is experimentally investigated in this study. HCHO is chosen due to its ubiquitous existence, potential health hazards, and chemical form. Destruction of HCHO molecules can be achieved by both “direct electron attack” and “indirect gas-phase radical reaction” mechanisms. Experimental results also indicate competition between these two mechanisms. Operating parameters that affect HCHO destruction efficiency include gas composition, applied voltage, and gas residence time in the dielectric barrier discharge reactor. As high as 97% destruction efficiency is achieved in this study. Experimental results demonstrate the potential for applying DBDs as an alternate technology for destroying volatile organic compounds from gas streams.