Design of a five-degrees of freedom statically balanced mechanism with multi-directional functionality

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6 Scopus citations


A statically balanced mechanism is designed as a potential solution for the positioning of surgical instruments. Its kinematics with five degrees of freedom that decouples linear and angular motions is proposed for that objective. The linear motion of its end effector is provided by a classical parallelogram linkage. To enhance its adaptability, a mechanical system allows re-orienting the position mechanism in three different working modes (horizontal, upward and downward) while preserving its static balance. Based on the mechanical concept, a uniformized static balancing condition that considers all working modes is given. The orientation of the end effector is provided by a spherical decoupled mechanism. It generates a remote center of motion which is highly representative of kinematics in surgery requirements. Based on the mechanism kinematics, the evolution of its gravitational potential energy is studied. Two different mechanical concepts are then proposed to generate a compensating elastic potential energy. A CAD model of the entire mechanism has allowed the estimation of all mechanical parameters for the selection of the appropriate tension springs and for carrying out validation simulations. A prototype of the statically balanced mechanism is fabricated and successfully tested.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021


  • Decoupled mechanism
  • Parallelogram linkage
  • Remote center of motion
  • Spherical mechanism
  • Statically balanced mechanism


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