Design and Analysis of CMOS Low-Phase-Noise Low Quadrature Error v -Band Subharmonically Injection-Locked Quadrature FLL

Hong Yeh Chang, Chun Ching Chan, Shen Ming Li, Han Nong Yeh, Ian Yi En Shen, Gun Lin Huang

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13 Scopus citations


Design and analysis of low-phase-noise low quadrature error V-band subharmonically injection-locked quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) and quadrature frequency-locked loop (FLL) are presented in this paper using 90-nm CMOS process. A modified self-injection technique is employed in the QVCO to reduce quadrature error and phase noise. A transformer coupled topology is adopted to widen the locking range (LR) of the subharmonically injection-locked QVCO. With a subharmonic number of 3, the proposed subharmonically injection-locked QVCO demonstrates an overall LR of 3.5 GHz, a phase noise of -126.8 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset, a phase error of 0.32°, and an amplitude error of 0.26 dB. Moreover, the quadrature FLL is developed using the QVCO, and the subharmonic number can be up to 32 since the control voltage of the QVCO is adaptively aligned to overcome the LR. The operation frequency of the subharmonically injection-locked quadrature FLL is from 49 to 51.4 GHz. The measured amplitude and phase errors are 0.5 dB and 2.5°, respectively. Between 15 °C and 50 °C, the measured minimum phase noise at 1-MHz offset and jitter integrated from 1 kHz to 40 MHz are lower than -106 dBc/Hz and 110 fs, respectively. Compared to the prior art, the proposed V -band subharmonically injection-locked quadrature QVCO and quadrature FLL feature excellent performance and good robustness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2851-2866
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • CMOS
  • frequency-locked loop (FLL)
  • low-phase-noise oscillators
  • millimeter-wave circuits
  • quadrature modulation
  • RFIC/ monolithic microwave integrated circuit design
  • voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)


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