The collision of continental crust of the Eurasian Plate with the overriding Luzon Arc in central Taiwan has led to compression, uplift, and exhumation of rocks that were originally part of the Chinese rifted margin. Though the kinematics of the fold-thrust belt on the west side of the orogen has been described in detail, the style of deformation in the lower crust beneath Taiwan is still not well understood. In addition, the fate of the Luzon Arc and Forearc in the collision is also not clear. Compressional wave arrival times from active-source and earthquake seismic data from the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research program constrain the seismic velocity structure of the lithosphere along transect T5, an east-west corridor in central Taiwan. The results of our analysis indicate that the continental crust of the Eurasian margin forms a broad crustal root beneath central Taiwan, possibly with a thickness of 55 km. Compressional seismic velocities beneath the Central Range of Taiwan are as low as 5.5 km/s at 25 km depth, whereas P wave seismic velocities in the middle crust on the eastern flank of the Taiwan mountain belt average 6.5-7.0 km/s. This suggests that the incoming sediments and upper crust of the Eurasian Plate are buried to midcrustal depth in the western flank of the orogen before they are exhumed in the Central Range. To the east, the Luzon Arc and Forearc are deformed beneath the Coastal Range of central Taiwan. Fragments of the rifted margin of the South China Sea that were accreted in the early stages of the collision form a new backstop that controls the exhumation of Eurasian strata to the west in this evolving mountain belt.