Decoupling free-carriers contributions from oxygen-vacancy and cation-substitution in extrinsic conducting oxides

Y. H. Lin, Y. S. Liu, Y. C. Lin, Y. S. Wei, K. S. Liao, K. R. Lee, J. Y. Lai, H. M. Chen, Y. C. Jean, C. Y. Liu

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Abstract

The intrinsic oxygen-vacancies and the extrinsic dopants are two major fundamental free-carrier sources for the extrinsic conducting oxides, such as Sn-doped In2O3. Yet, the individual contributions of the above two free-carrier sources to the total carrier concentrations have never been unraveled. A carrier-concentration separation model is derived in this work, which can define the individual contributions to the total carrier concentration from the intrinsic oxygen-vacancies and the extrinsic dopants, separately. The individual contributions obtained from the present carrier-concentration separation model are verified by the two-state trapping model, photoluminescence, and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. In addition, the oxygen-vacancy formation energy of the Sn:In2O 3 thin film is determined to be 0.25 eV by PAL spectroscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033706
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume113
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Jan 2013

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