Cross-interaction study of Cu/Sn/Pd and Ni/Sn/Pd sandwich solder joint structures

C. T. Lu, T. S. Huang, C. H. Cheng, H. W. Tseng, C. Y. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Cross-interactions between Cu/Sn/Pd and Ni/Sn/Pd sandwich structures were investigated in this work. For the Cu/Sn/Pd case, the growth behavior and morphology of the interfacial (Pd,Cu)Sn 4 compound layer was very similar to that of the single Pd/Sn interfacial reaction. This indicates that the growth of the (Pd,Cu)Sn 4 layer at the Sn/Pd interface would not be affected by the opposite Cu/Sn interfacial reaction. We can conclude that there is no cross-interaction effect between the two interfacial reactions in the Cu/Sn/Pd sandwich structure. For the Ni/Sn/Pd case, we observed that: (1) after 300 s of reflow time, the (Pd,Ni)Sn 4 compound heterogeneously nucleated on the Ni 3Sn 4 compound layer at the Sn/Ni interface; (2) the growth of the interfacial PdSn 4 compound layer was greatly suppressed by the formation of the (Pd,Ni)Sn 4 compound at the Sn/Ni interface. We believe that this suppression of PdSn 4 growth is caused by heterogeneous nucleation of the (Pd,Ni)Sn 4 compound in the Ni 3Sn 4 compound layer, which decreases the free energy of the entire sandwich reaction system. The difference in the chemical potential of Pd in the PdSn 4 phase at the Pd/Sn interface and in the (Pd,Ni)Sn 4 phase at the Sn/Ni interface is the driving force for the Pd atomic flux across the molten Sn. The diffusion of Ni into the ternary (Pd,Ni)Sn 4 compound layer controls the Pd atomic flux across the molten Sn and the growth of the ternary (Pd,Ni)Sn 4 compound at the Sn/Ni interface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-137
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • cross-interaction
  • Interfacial reaction
  • solder joint


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