Continuous amplified digital optical phase conjugator for focusing through thick, heavy scattering medium

Yeh Wei Yu, Ching Cherng Sun, Xing Chen Liu, Wei Hsin Chen, Szu Yu Chen, Yu Heng Chen, Chih Shun Ho, Che Chu Lin, Tsung Hsun Yang, Po Kai Hsieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is a well-known technique for generating a counter-propagating wavefront and reversing multiple scattering effects. Until now, implementations of DOPC are mostly based on a switching geometry. For some applications such as optical tweezers in turbid media, however, switching-based DOPC could fail to grab fast-moving particles. Besides, a DOPC modality with temporally-continuous gain is required. In this paper, a continuous amplified digital optical phase conjugator (CA-DOPC) is introduced to form a focusing point after passing through a heavily scattering medium. To achieve high-precision alignment between the CMOS image sensor and the spatial light modulator (SLM) in the CA-DOPC, an optical phase conjugator along with a specially designed alignment pattern was used. In this research, the CA-DOPC showed its ability to form a focus point in 2-mm-thick chicken muscle tissue. In addition, a continuous gain of 166 and peak-to-background ratio (PBR) of 3×105 were observed in the case of 0.5-mm chicken muscle tissue.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)703-714
Number of pages12
JournalOSA Continuum
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2019

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