Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti (2016)

Min Yang Chou, Charles C.H. Lin, Jia Yue, Ho Fang Tsai, Yang Yi Sun, Jann Yenq Liu, Chia Hung Chen

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Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances (CTIDs) in total electron content triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti on 13 September 2016 are detected by using the ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems network in Taiwan. The CTIDs emanated outward before the typhoon landfall and lasted for more than 10 h. The characteristics of CTIDs agree with the gravity wave theory and exhibit spatial and temporal scales in wave periods of ~8–30 min, horizontal wavelengths of ~160–200 km, and horizontal phase velocities of ~106–220 m/s. We also observe the CTIDs showing the stationary wave character. Broad spectra of CTIDs are excited after the rainbands of typhoon impinged on Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. The ray-tracing technique confirms that the CTIDs were excited by convective clouds, spiral rainbands, and the eyewall of Typhoon Meranti. This study provides new evidence of typhoon-induced concentric gravity waves in the ionosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1219-1226
Number of pages8
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - 16 Feb 2017


  • concentric gravity waves
  • ionosphere
  • TIDs
  • typhoon


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